Zafrullah Khan was involved with the Boundary Commission, played a political role in the Kashmir war of 1948, was the first foreign minister of Pakistan, and was center-stage during the Events of 1953.
A seminal paper covering the history, and events of 1953.
(BRUSH, S. E. (1955), AHMADIYYAT IN PAKISTAN. The Muslim World, 45: 145–171 – Volume 45, Issue 2, pages 145–171, April 1955)
Original PDF - 1.6 MB
has written a paper (PDF, 17 MB) on the policy of the Government of Pakistan and the laws that affect the Ahmadiyya.
This political frustration led to the Ahmadiyya [attack on the train] passing through their headquarters, Rabwah, triggered riots and eventually led to the 2nd Amendment to the nascent Constitution of Pakistan:
. . . (3) A person who does not believe in the absolute and unqualified finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon Him), the last of the Prophets or claims to be a prophet, in any sense of the word or of any description whatsoever, after Muhammad (peace be upon Him), or recognises such a claimant as a prophet or a religious reformer, is not a Muslim for the purposes of the Constitution or Law.Since the Pakistan Constitution requires the President and Prime Minister to be Muslim, and because of their opposition to the 2nd Islamic Summit, and taking the law into their hands in an organized fashion, anti-Ahmadiyya forces had political strength. Politicians and military officials were also wary of the blind obedience that senior civil servants and military commanders had to pledge as a condition of being Ahmadi. At the time, the most senior civil servant in Pakistan in Pakistan was [Mirza Muzaffar Ahmad], and some very high-ranking military officers were also Ahmadi.
Since that time, Ahmadis are, by convention, barred from holding any rank above Colonel in the armed forces, and high civil service posts. Anti-Ahmadiyya groups monitor this with vigilance.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal, in 1935, had asked the British to declare the Qadianis as separate community just as they had done with regard to the Sikhs (in 1919 the Sikhs were declared separate from the Hindus although the High Court had ruled that the Sikhs were a part of the Hindu religion). As Iqbal said, 'the Qadianis while pursuing a policy of separation in religion and social matters' were, however, anxious to remain politically within the fold. (Impact Magazine, http://www.alhafeez.org/rashid/constipak.html)
persecution'. Since Ahmadis were readily granted asylum in Western countries, many Muslims would convert to the Ahmadiyya (and still do) in order to apply for asylum. In addition, Ahmadiyya publications did not comply with the spirit of the law and repeated warnings from the government to keep their terminology non-provocative to general Muslims.
Also, see the discussion on the Law on Freedom of Religion.
*298-A. Use of derogatory remarks, etc., in respect of holy personages:*The Ahmadiyya continued to use the word 'ummul-mumineen' for the wives of their founder whereas it is universally used for the wives of the Prophet Muhammad(saw) and other such terms described above, respectively.
Anti-lslamic Activities of Quadiani Group, Lahori Group and Ahmadis (Prohibition and Punishment) Ordinance, XX of 1984The 'persecution' of Ahmadis had been advantageous for the group in terms of the financial well-being of its members, and resultant contributions. The Ahmadiyya did not make any attempt to reconcile its differences with the law. The government again amended the Penal Code to include the following:
298-B. Misuse of epithets, descriptions and titles, etc., reserved for certain holy personages or places:Also, see the discussion on the Law on Freedom of Religion.