Events of 1953

Maulana Maududi Notes on 1953 Munir Commission


Munir Commission Report


Sir Zafrullah Khan and Excerpts from British Archives

These are some documents recovered from the British Archives that are evidence of the events that led up to the 1953 disturbances and the role of Zafrullah Khan, who was the Pakistani foreign minister at that time and a member of the Ahmadiyya.

  • You will see that most leaders and officials talking to foreign powers and some don't, and foreign governments don't like those who don't talk. It is also an interesting study in neo-colonialism. In all these documents, you will see that Daultana and the "mullahs" do not speak to Western powers at all; and the British created news stories, "censored" them and brought reputations up or down in the public eye.
  • There is between-the-lines mention of the B.P.C. - Basic Principles Committee – and it appears after reading everything that it was the dissatisfaction of Britain and America over including the religious leaders in the constitution process of Pakistan that resulted in political instability. In this instability came the "baby" (Nazimuddin's words) of the religious agitation, but no politician would adopt the baby. It was finally adopted in 1974.
  • Pakistan is on full alert for the arrival of Zafrullah Khan from abroad - there is bound to be agitation from "mullahs":
  • The famous 6 March communique in which Daultana tried to talk to Ulema and negotiate with them. British "censored" this communique, press was muzzled, it was not allowed to reach even Karachi. Some ulema had it distributed via airplane in Lahore, and those ulema were later marked for "shoot on sight" by police.
  • Britain is really perplexed with the communique and its implications [ The question here is: why won't Britain let negotiations take place, as in every democracy? I think we know the answer - because ulema don't talk to them. This was just a call for negotiations, but is being called capitulation.
  • Yusuf Haroon briefs Britain about internal party politics. British are very concerned about the March 6 communique but pretend not to show their concern.]
  • General Azam, who single-handedly implemented Martial Law, is also talking in detail to British, unfortunately:
  • Even the Chief of Police Naqvi is talking to the British :
  • The sixth March communique is still distressing the British. That was the democratic foundation of Pakistan - talking and negotiating - instead of Martial Law and "shoot on sight". They used that in various ways – publicized the communique in certain circles, while pressuring Daultana at the same time. Zafrullah Khan obliged them by monitoring the work, then coming back to report to them in long confidential discussions. CYPHER is the highest encryption level for communication between the embassy and London - and this is going to the British Prime Minister's office also. Was Daultana that important? Probably, and that he could not be bought.
  • Prime Minister Nazimuddin did not want to use force. By triple-crossing Daultana, Punjab flames were fanned, that resulted in General Azam's action – and weakening the authority of the PM even further.
  • Khizar Hayat also reports his monitoring of the plot:
  • Zafrullah Khan again briefs the British Ambassador in detail about the plot to weaken both the Punjab government and the Central government and use of the "notorious communique". He is relating the internal workings of his government to an external power:
  • Iskander Mirza now introduces the British Ambassador to more people he can be relied on. Note the "shoot on sight" order for Ulema responsible for distributing the communique:
  • Iskander Mirza sows the seeds for replacing Central Government:
  • Afghan reaction to the anti-Ahmadiyya riots and how Afghan leaders are wary of a growing Ahmadiyya - and mention of the killing of MGA Afghan followers by Afghan king in the past:
  • Zafrullah Khan now talks about his own government, Central government, and his boss - Nazimuddin - and informs British of why Nazimuddin also supports "mullahs" and how to get rid of him. Note the reference to the constitution and how this whole process is related to it. Zafrullah Khan against Nazimuddin:
  • Zafrullah Khan knows his days are now numbered. Note the words "long walk" and "rattled" and "I cannot do anything for him" and "something in the air" – all implying an increasingly tight position:
  • Even Uncle Sam knows the gig is up on Zafrullah Khan. Both Britain and America are prepared to use strongest measures to keep Zafrullah Khan in place:
  • London drafts a letter to guide Ambassador on how to approach this subject: [ The letter was never sent as the Pakistani government is changed before that was necessary. Instructions on protest about Zafrullah is not sent while Pak Govt is changed:]
  • "Not a grain of wheat could be got from the U.S. if Zafrullah went". It is interesting to note that the highlights of the Munir enquiry proceedings that the British High Commission chose to report to London included Zafrullah Khan and the Daultana-Center game – establishing the fact the link and concern of the British over these two items:
  • Daultana still has some reputation left:
  • British Secretary of State himself planned "action" on Nazimuddin to save Zafrullah Khan – and try to hide it from Pakistanis: